RECONSTRUCCIÓN DEL RÉGIMEN DE INCENDIOS EN ECOSISTEMAS TEMPLADOS PATAGÓNICOS SOBRE LA BASE DE REGISTROS DE CARBÓN VEGETAL SEDIMENTARIO (CHARCOAL) Y POLEN DURANTE EL CUATERNARIO TARDÍO. TENDENCIAS METODOLÓGICAS, RESULTADOS Y PERSPECTIVAS

Gonzalo D. Sottile, Yamila S. Giaché, María M. Bianchi

Resumen


Resumen. La ecología de incendios es una actividad interdisciplinaria concerniente al estudio de los procesos naturales que involucran fuego en los ecosistemas y su interacción con los componentes bióticos y abióticos. Numerosos estudios orientados al conocimiento de la evolución de los ecosistemas naturales y humanos bajo la influencia recurrente del fuego atraviesan el trabajo interdisciplinario en el marco de la Ecología y de las Ciencias de la Tierra. El efecto de los incendios naturales y antrópicos en la evolución del paisaje, su impacto en las comunidades de bosque y la respuesta de los ecosistemas a los incendios son temas de debate y deben ser evaluados en diferentes escalas, tanto temporales como espaciales. En este trabajo se presentan algunos ejemplos que ponen en evidencia en qué medida la metodología aplicada al estudio de la producción, dispersión y depositación del carbón vegetal sedimentario o charcoal en cuencas lacustres y humedales contribuye a dar respuestas a estos interrogantes, se realiza una actualización bibliográfica y se describen algunos ejemplos de los estudios a escala de siglos a milenios, realizados hasta el momento en el sur de América del Sur.

Palabras clave. Paleoecología. Palinología. Métodos de reconstrucción de la historia de incendios. Ecología del fuego. Holoceno. Pleistoceno Tardío.

Abstract. FIRE REGIME RECONSTRUCTION IN PATAGONIAN TEMPERATE ECOSYSTEMS BASED ON CHARCOAL AND POLEN RECORDS DURING THE LATE QUATERNARY. METHODOLOGICAL TRENDS, RESULTS AND PERSPECTIVES. Fire ecology is an interdisciplinary activity concerning the study of natural processes that involve fire interactions with biotic and abiotic components of the ecosystems. Numerous studies focused on the knowledge of the evolution of natural and human ecosystems under the recurrent influence of fire need the interdisciplinary work between Ecology and Earth Sciences. The effect of natural and anthropogenic fires on the evolution of the landscape, its impact on forest communities and the response of ecosystems to fires are topics for debate and should be evaluated at both temporal and spatial scales. In this paper we present some examples that show the extent to which the methodology applied to the study of the production, dispersion and deposition of sedimentary charcoal in lake basins and wetlands contributes to give answers to these debates. We also present some updated references and describe examples of these paleoecological studies focused at centuries to millennia scales in southern South America.

Key words. Paleoecology. Palynology. Fire history reconstruction methods. Fire ecology. Holocene. Late Pleistocene.


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